2019 has marked a fundamental turning point in the energy transition of the European Union (EU).
Friends in Need: Whither the Russia-India Strategic Partnership? Russie.Nei.Visions, No. 116, Ifri, October 2019
This paper explores the latest developments in key spheres of the Russia-India relationship in order to identify the state of bilateral ties at a time when South Asia has turned into an area of geopolitical contest of both global and regional powers.
The Sanctions Policy of the European Union: Multilateral Ambitions Versus Power Politics Etudes de l'Ifri, October 2019
Restrictive measures are a major instrument of the European Union (EU)’s external action, which has emerged as one of the world’s leading sanctions emitters. The EU has thus leveraged the size of its market and its economic and financial clout (trade relations, aid policy and bilateral...
Sub-Surface Competition in the Euro-Atlantic Area: The Challenge to Western Dominance Editoriaux de l'Ifri, October 2019
Russia’s Syrian campaign has demonstrated the returning challenge the West faces in the underwater domain.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, if not from the birth of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) itself, relations with United States have proven to be a central factor in China’s strategic calculus and a major driver of Chinese foreign policy. Indeed, America’s...
No Longer a Middle Power: Australia’s Strategy in the 21st Century Focus stratégique, No. 92, September 2019
Confronted with a strained strategic environment and a relative decline of its resource base, Australia is currently going through a historical shift of its global status.
China’s 2018 energy consumption data capture the ambiguity of Beijing’s attitude toward climate change. Energy demand rose by 3.5% to 3,155 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), with an increase of coal consumption (though its share in the overall energy mix is decreasing) and an expected...
(De)globalization of International Plastic Waste Trade: Stakes at Play and Perspectives Édito Énergie, September 2019
The world plastic production has been multiplied by 23 since 1964 to reach 348 million tonnes (mt) in 2017. This production level is expected to double in the next 20 years, largely because of the significant growth in plastic consumption in developing countries. Today, China is the...
Waste Management and Electricity Generation in Africa: Developing Waste-to-Energy to the Benefit of Sustainable Cities? Études de l'Ifri, September 2019
With the expansion of modern production and consumption patterns to large African cities, population growth and urbanization, production of municipal waste has risen sharply. Unregulated dumps are becoming numerous and have strong negative health effects by polluting the local environment....
Prospects for the New EU Strategy on India: Game Changer or Business as Usual? Asie.Visions, No. 108, September 2019
The new European Union (EU) strategy on India marks a major moment of departure in EU-India relations.