This text was published in Politique étrangère in 1979, the year in which the French Institute of International Relations (Ifri) was created.
During the 19th century, Westerners provided ideological justifications for their colonization, namely spreading the Enlightenment across the globe.
The last four decades have witnessed the profound transformation of the very foundations of the international system: the globalization of trade, technical revolutions, the upheaval of the hierarchy of powers, the emergence of China, the explosion of the Middle-East, the mutation of conflicts...
Between Concentration and Dispersion: A Promising Future for Power Relations Politique étrangère, Vol. 84, No. 1, Spring 2019
The notion of power has long been a topic of study in international relations. In the coming decade, the evolution of power will be characterized by the dynamics of concentration and dispersion.
Urbanization is a relentless trend, and as cities grow and expand, armed conflict and violence are urbanizing as well.
Of Russia’s 146 million citizens (if we include those in Crimea), 63 million—or 43 percent—are under 34 years of age. Of these, 30 million belong to Generation Y (millennials in their 20s and early 30s), 15 million belong to Gen Z (teenagers), and a further 18 million are part of the youngest...
Imagined Geographies of Central and Eastern Europe: The Concept of Intermarium IERES Occasional Papers, March 2019
Like the proverbial cat, some concepts have several lives. Or, like the mythological phoenix, they can be reborn from the ashes. This is certainly the case of the Intermarium, a geopolitical concept that envisaged an alliance of countries reaching from the Baltic Sea over the Black Sea to the...
The ‘Conservative Turn’ in Indonesian Islam: Implications for the 2019 Presidential Elections Asie.Visions, No. 106, March 2019
Despite Indonesia’s reputation for a traditionally moderate brand of Islam, religious conservativism is gaining considerable political traction in the lead up to this April’s presidential election.
Although not akin to the protectionist policies practiced by the United States through the 1930s, the trade war launched by the Trump administration since early 2018 challenges the principles and institutions of free trade.
Will the EU Let Itself Be Bought ? New Framework for Foreign Direct Investments in Europe Etudes de l'Ifri, March 2019
In 2016, Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the European Union (UE) reached a record high, in contrast to the steady decline in FDI flows from the EU to China. Beijing is looking for markets and strategic assets and particularly targets advanced technologies in major European...