How to reform peacemaking in the Democratic Republic of Congo: When peace processes become international "systems of organized action" Note de l'Ifri, February 2009
Summary: This discussion paper proposes an analysis of incompleteness peace processes in Eastern Congo which have resulted in a stalemate - a stalemate which has encouraged the conflict's actors to prioritize using force in order to impose " their solution " (victorious blitzkrieg from CNDP at the end of 2008, offensive from Congolo-Rwandese armies against FDLR at the beginning of 2009). This analysis interprets reasons, pressures and compromises which led to unsuccessful peace making from 2006 to 2008 and, indirectly, triggered the disturbing agreement between Kigali and Kinshasa. The agreement itself neutralized Laurent Nkunda, designed FDLR as a common enemy to bring down and temporarily brought the Rwandan Army back into the DRC.
Thierry Vircoulon, Associate Fellow within Ifri's Sub-saharan Africa program