Pro-Israel Interest Groups in France: A Typology Marc Hecker, Politique étrangère, 2/2005, (Summer).
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Several pro-Israeli organizations are trying to influence the position of the French government in order to counterbalance the so-called 'politique arabe de la France'. These organizations are indeed convinced that France has been leading a pro-Arab policy since 1967. Pro-Israeli interest groups are quite unknown and the aim of this paper is to start lifting the veil from these groups. The author first analyzes the nature of the defenders of the Hebrew State and insists on the difference between religious and non religious pro-Israeli interest groups. Then he focuses on the means of action and the weight of these groups. He ultimately tries to reassess the expression 'pro-Israeli lobby' arguing that such an appellation is irrelevant in the French context and should therefore be rejected. Marc Hecker is Research Assistant at Ifri. His last book, La Défense des intérêts de l’État d’Israël en France, will be published in the second half of 2005 by L’Harmattan.