The recovery plan agreed upon by European Union leaders in July 2020 is unprecedented: for the first time, it creates a common debt that will help revive the economies impacted by the pandemic.
RAMSES 2021. At the Edge?, written by Ifri's research team and external experts, offers an in-depth and up-to-date analysis of geopolitics in today’s world.
Looking back on the last few weeks, a famous quote by Goethe (from his report on the siege of Mainz in 1793) came to mind: “Better to commit an injustice than to countenance disorder.” In other words, disorder engenders more injustice than it eradicates. But, if one word...
Mozambique: Security, Political and Geopolitical Challenges of the Gas Boom Études de l'Ifri, August 2020
The vast gas discoveries in Mozambique, some 160 trillion cubic feet (4,530 billion cubic meters), will make this very poor country (6th lowest gross national income (GNI) per capita – the lowest in Africa) one of the world’s future major producers of liquefied natural gas (LNG) within two...
France and Bavaria have a longstanding close and solid partnership. However, the relationship between France and Bavaria is not only marked by a common history and by the structures created over the decades.
Caught in the Web of Bureaucracy? How ‘Failed’ Land Deals Shape the State in Tanzania International Development Policy - Revue internationale de politique de développment, vol. 12, n° 2, 2020
After more than ten years of hectic debates on international ‘land grabs’, academic interest in collapsed land deals or projects with unexpected results is growing.
Global Order in the Shadow of the Coronavirus: China, Russia and the West Lowy Institute Analysis, July 2020
The coronavirus pandemic has thrown a harsh spotlight on the state of global governance. Faced with the greatest emergency since the Second World War, nations have regressed into narrow self-interest. The concept of a rules-based international order has been stripped of meaning, while...
France and the Modernization of the EU-Turkey Customs Union: Interests and Obstacles Notes de l'Ifri, July 2020
This report is part of a joint endeavor of the Centre for Applied Turkey Studies (CATS) at Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP), along with Elcano Royal Institute (ELCANO, Madrid), The Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM, Warsaw), Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI, Rome) and...
Japan’s Space Program: Shifting Away from “Non-Offensive” Purposes? Asie.Visions, No. 115, July 2020
Japan’s space program has evolved greatly since the end of the Cold War, driven by a rapidly changing geopolitical environment and tailored by the emergence of an “intra-alliance hedging strategy”.
The European Equation of Nuclear Deterrence, Variables and Possible Solutions Éditoriaux de l'Ifri, July 2020
Ever since nuclear weapons were developed by the United States and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, Europe has lived under the nuclear shadow. A major direct confrontation between “the West” and “the East” could have very likely resulted in the detonation of nuclear...