Successive attempts to institutionalise Islam in France have not resulted in an entirely satisfactory outcome.
Since gaining independence in 1960, Somalia has enjoyed only a few periods of stability.
Turkey and the Armenian Genocide: from Denial to Recognition? Politique étrangère, Vol. 80, No. 3, Autumn 2015
At the close of World War I, denial of the Armenian genocide became a central point in Turkey’s official doctrine.
Revisiting Relations 100 Years After the Armenian Genocide Politique étrangère, Vol. 80, No. 3, Autumn 2015
The 100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide will not mark a great historical moment in Armenian-Turkish relations.
The European Union (EU) has been trying to establish a common European asylum system for fifteen years. This project has been stalled by disagreements between states, each looking out for its own national interests.
After the war between Israel and Hezbollah during the summer of 2006, a deterrence strategy was established between the two parties. Occasional subsequent crises have thereby been contained and have been prevented from escalating into extensive confrontations.
Boko Haram, an Exception within the Jihadist Movement? Politique étrangère, Vol. 80, No. 2, Summer 2015
Boko Haram was created in 2002 and has been led since 2010 by Abubakar Shekau; however, we still know little about it.
The annexation of Crimea and the Ukraine crisis have enabled Vladimir Putin once again to put on a display of Russian dominance, uniting the nation around core conservative values.
The Islamic State has considerable income, mostly from taking control of banks; managing trafficking networks – particularly hydrocarbons – and from external support.