The European Union (EU) is the world’s main trader in agricultural products, with imports totaling €142 billion in 2020. These imported agricultural products include commodities – palm oil, beef, cocoa, coffee, soy, etc. – that are responsible for deforestation in producing countries and...
Energy & Climate
Ifri has celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2019 and is ranked in the top-3 of the world's most influential think-tanks (Upenn Index). Its Center for Energy & Climate combines a unique expertise on energy & climate policies and European and global energy markets, technologies and value chains. In particular, the Center analyses the interplay between geopolitics, geo-economics and energy markets & policies. And how the traditional tensions around fossil fuels evolve and are complemented by new rivalries for other resources, norms, technologies, investments, value chains.
Through its reports, closed-door seminars and open events in Paris and Brussels, the Center for Energy & Climate is conducting forefront and independent research to provide strategic information and analyses to policy-makers, industry stakeholders, academia, media and the wider public. The Center is a leading voice in France and the European Union.
- The strategic dimension of the European Union energy transition and drive towards carbon neutrality by 2050; cooperation and coordination among relevant actors; geo-economic rivalries around the deployment of low carbon energy systems; risks and opportunities for public and private stakeholders.
- Shifting power relations and alliances in the global climate governance and implementation of the Paris Agreement; climate change and instability.
- Electricity sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa: scaling up sustainable electricity access, attracting investments and restructuring, and developing low carbon electricity systems.
- The evolving interdependence between and among fossil fuels producers and consumers; the future stability and geopolitical orientation of fossil fuel exporters.
Organisation of the Centre
The governance and financial structure of the Center ensures that our work is fully independent and of the highest quality and relevance. The Center is financed by Ifri partner institutions, organizations and companies as presented in Ifri's activity report.
The Steering Committee gathers representatives from the Center’s partners, the Director of Ifri, and the Director of the Center for Energy & Climate. Meetings of the Steering Committee provide our partners the opportunity to express their views on the general orientation of the Center.
The Missing Guest: Energy Efficiency in the Multilateral Energy Arena Briefings de l'Ifri, October 12, 2021
Since the 1970s, energy efficiency has gained visibility as a low hanging fruit – its potential impact on critical issues such as climate change, energy security, or competitiveness is now widely acknowledged, even more so in times of higher energy prices.
Facing a Wall: Climate in the German Elections and Perspectives for France Briefings de l'Ifri, September 21, 2021
All key candidates have climate neutrality by 2045 in sight, yet Germany is preparing to embark on a high-speed decarbonization train that has neither enough power nor rails to lead to its final destination. Beyond slogans and principles, effective strategies have often been missing.
After the Hydrogen Bubble Bursts: The Factors Shaping and Possibly Unfolding International Hydrogen Value Chains Briefings de l'Ifri, September 17, 2021
The laws of physics and the geographic realities will prevail over the myths of hydrogen (H2): it will essentially be delivering carbon-neutral feedstocks to the chemical and steelmaking industries, carbon-neutral fuels to shipping and aviation, and eventually ensuring security in...
Geopolitics of the World’s Forests: Strategies for Tackling Deforestation Études de l'Ifri, June 2021
Deforestation continues at a worrying pace worldwide, except in temperate and boreal countries. It is caused by the race for land, underpinned by population growth and rising global demand for “deforestation-prone” products. Moreover, with climate change, mega-fires are now posing...
Climate and International Trade: The Clash of Powers Politique étrangère, Vol. 86, No. 3, Autumn 2021
The fight against climate change has a major economic dimension. With climate neutrality as their new objective, the major powers are counting on green industrial policy, and trying to contain the emissions related to their imports.
CCUS in Europe: A New Role and Implications for France and Germany Briefings de l'Ifri, August 25, 2021
A second wave of projects is under development, and it is much different from the 2000 wave. While Norway, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands are at its forefront, France and Germany have major competencies, and many projects could be carried out in these countries.
Mexico’s Energy Policies During the Presidency of Andrés Manuel López Obrador: Sovereignty and Security Briefings de l'Ifri, July 9, 2021
In power for three years, President Lopez Obrador leads a National Revolution. The energy sector sees the strengthening of the State and state-owned companies, the Federal Electricity Company and Petróleos Mexicanos, against the liberalization principles implemented in the Energy Reform (2013...
India’s Energy and Climate Policies Post COVID-19: Short Term Slowdown, Longer Term Boom in Renewables Etudes de l'Ifri, July 2021
India has long been a positive and committed partner in global and domestic climate change mitigation efforts.
Green Recovery for Sub-Saharan Africa: Boosting Sustainable Electrification Dossier ISPI, Hopes and Realities: A Green Recovery for Africa? June 25, 2021
If sub-Saharan Africa followed the same model of economic development as the rest of the world, focused on the growth of carbon intensive industries, cities and infrastructures, it would seal the planet's climate future. Africa’s emissions today are among the lowest per capita in the world: 0...
What to expect from the COP26 Climate Conference? Shifts in global attitudes and diplomatic strategies Ifri Closed Videoconference
In spite of President Biden’s Leaders Summit in April, there has been little improvement in national climate pledges. The world is still heading for a >2.5°C warming and the 1.5°C trajectory looks increasingly unlikely, if not impossible. Chances to bridge the pledges gap before...
Sustainable Urban Growth in Africa: the Role of Governance, SMEs and Disruptive Technologies Ifri Webinar
In 2030, half of the African population will be living in urban agglomerations. Rapid urban growth has been defined as major challenges, but also a potential opportunity for the continent’s socio-economic development. Creating inclusive, sustainable and resilient cities is one of the 17 United...
A "Les Jeudis de l'Ifri" videoconférence around Carole MATHIEU, Head of EU Policies, Center for Energy & Climate.
The ‘Fit-for-55’ Package: A Giant Leap for the European Economy? Ifri Green Deal Virtual Lunch Series
With the “Fit for 55” package, the European Union (EU) is the first global player to turn its climate neutrality pledge into a wide set of transformative policy proposals.
In direct response to the climate diplomacy push by US President Joe Biden, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga announced a new 2030 goal to reduce emissions by 46% from 2013 levels, representing a significant additional effort compared to the country’s previous commitment under the Paris...
The International Dimension of Hydrogen: What Value Chains Could Develop and Are Large Hydrogen Imports Realistic? Ifri Closed Videoconference
Hydrogen will play a role for reaching climate neutrality and is key to industrial recovery strategies in Europe. Japan and Germany have developed large hydrogen import plans, while others, such as Australia, Chile, Saudi Arabia, the UK, Spain, Portugal or Russia, are planning for exports....
President Xi has surprised both the world and Chinese stakeholders in announcing the carbon neutrality objective by 2060. Yet the first announcements on China’s new Five Year Plan give little hope for a substantial policy adjustment in order to peak greenhouse gas emissions in the coming years...
The Development of Healthy Cities In Sub-Saharan Africa: Stepping Up Clean Electricity Uses Webinar organized in partnership between Columbia - Global Centers Nairobi, SIPA Center on Global Energy Policy (CGEP) and Ifri’s Center for Energy & Climate
Affordable and reliable electricity access from renewable energy sources is a prerequisite for the development of sustainable and healthy cities in sub-Saharan Africa.
Electricity Decarbonization, Diversification and Security of Supply: How to Meet the 2030 Challenge in North-West Continental Europe? Ifri Green Deal Virtual Lunch Series
Electricity systems of the North-West area of continental Europe will go through fundamental changes in the coming years. Decarbonization and diversification strategies adopted in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands will lead to a swift phase out of large amounts of dispatchable coal...
Italy’s Green Recovery Strategy and the European Climate Agenda Ifri Green Deal Virtual Lunch Series
Italy is firmly committed to decarbonizing its economy, with policy measures including phasing out coal by 2025, encouraging home renovations with generous tax breaks and expanding the use of renewables in the electricity, heating, and transport sectors.
Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, director of Ifri's Center for Energy & Climate, explains why the creation of an International Minerals Agency would be essential to the regulation of this strategic global issue and how it could facilitate the dialogue between producers and consumers, bringing...
The two countries have been solid partners throughout the Trump era and France is now watching China’s investments closely, both at home and abroad.
With the recent adoption of its defence budget for 2021, the US has further tightened the screw on Nord Stream 2, threatening sanctions on EU companies involved in the Russian-backed pipeline and putting the future of the project further into uncertainty.
Asia’s biggest economy wants to promote fuel cells for trucks. Renewable energy investments should make hydrogen less costly. Tesla Inc.Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk has spent years mocking the idea of using hydrogen fuel cells rather than electric batteries to power next-generation green...
Governments across the globe are increasingly focusing on the benefits of sustainable energy and Qatar is no different. As part of its national vision, the country is working to create harmony between environmental protection and economic growth.
Following the 18 May Franco-German initiative and ahead of next week's critical presentation (27 May) by the European Commission of the European recovery plan aligned with the carbon neutrality objective, Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri's Center for Energy &...
“Green” or “Brown” Recovery Strategies? A preliminary assessment of policy trends in a selection of countries worldwide
Economic recovery measures taken by several governments in the world so far are not aligned with the Paris Agreement. Yet some governments took important steps in the right direction but they are often insufficient. Two cases stand out : South Korea and the EU. But delivering on the ambitions...
Covid-19 & OPEC+ collapse: preliminary assessment of implications for energy markets, policies and geopolitical balances
The global economy is shaken by the consequences of the Covid-19 outbreak in major global economies which increasingly impacts demand, supply chains and trade.
The price of CO2 credits on Europe’s emissions trading scheme needs to rise to around €50 per tonne in order to drive the long-term development of Europe’s biomethane industry, says Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, a French researcher.
The prospects for biogas in Europe look bright, with conservative estimates pointing to a tenfold increase in production by 2030. However, the industry will need to stay rooted in the local economy and come clean on environmental credentials if it wants to avoid a green backlash, analysts say....
- Center for Energy and Climate, 18 October 2021:
- Hugo Le Picard, Center for Energy & Climate, 30 September 2021:
- Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega and Juliette Blais, Center for Energy and Climate, 6 September 2021:
Low carbon technologies and critical metals: Revisiting the criticality and implications for scaling up the deployment of low carbon technologies
- Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega and Juliette Blais, Center for Energy and Climate, 6 September 2021:
David against Goliath: The European Union facing the issue of critical minerals and metals
Ifri Energy Transition Scorecard 2021 focusing on the European Union, China, the United States and Japan, Center for Energy & Climate, April 2021
Italy’s Energy and Climate Policies in the Post COVID-19 Recovery, Briefing Memo by Massimo Lombardini, February 2021
2020 Activity Report of the Center for Energy & Climate: publications, conferences and outreach (in French).
- Assessment of Renewable Investments in Europe by Leading Companies & Perspectives to 2025 by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Carole Mathieu and Thibault Menu, Ifri Center for Energy & Climate, 9 December 2020
- Analysis of the key issues that will make or break the Green Deal's energy and industrial aspects, by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of the Center for Energy & Climate, Ifri, 19 may 2020: The Twelve Labours of the European Green Deal
- Overview and assessment of policy measures taken in several G7, EU, G20 and regional economies and their climate impacts, two months after the start of the global lockdowns, by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Hugo Le Picard and Eloïse Couffon, 5 May 2020: “Green” or “Brown” Recovery Strategies? A preliminary assessment of policy trends in a selection of countries worldwide
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, 2nd German-Danish Roundtable on Energy Transition, Copenhaguen, 24 September 2019: The perspectives for biomethane in the EU
- Dialogue with Naftogaz CEO Kobolyev on gas negociations and Naftogaz restructuring, Brussels, 20 September 2019.
Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director, Ifri Center for Energy and Andriy Kobolyev, CEO, Naftogaz
- Hearing of Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies of the Ifri Center for Energy, National Assembly, 25 July 2019, Paris : Commission of inquiery Impacts of the Energy Transition (video)
- Fruitful conversation with Egypt's Minister of Petroleum and Natural Resources Tarek El Molla about Egypt's impressive energy sector reforms and positioning as a regional gas hub, Ifri, 12 June, Paris.
Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Tarek El Molla, Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources of Egypt, Thomas Gomart, Director of Ifri
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy and Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies of the Ifri Center for Energy, Plateforme française de l'automobile, 11 June 2019, Paris: "The European industry of batteries"
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Russian Gas Society, 16 May 2019, Berlin: The role of gas in the European energy transition: risks and opportunities
- Presentation by Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies of the Ifri Center for Energy, Bruegel Institute,15 May 2019, Brussels : The French Energy & Climate Strategy and the Future Role of Nuclear Electricity
- G7 Environment Ministerial, 5-6 May 2019, Metz. Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy: Scaling up environment protection, energy transition & climate action: vision and actions for a G7 leadership
- Presentation by Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe, Associate Research Fellow, Ifri Center for Energy, Energetika workshop on the future of gas, 24 April 2019, Berlin: Decarbonization of the French energy mix and the role of gas
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Trilateral forum, Council of Europe, 25 March 2019, Strasburg: Global and regional energy security revisited: old trends, new paradigms
Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Workshop for Algerian delegation on future gas demand in the EU, European Commission, DG ENER, 19 March 2019, Brussels : EU gas demand perspectives by 2030
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Convention de l'Association française du gaz, 12 March 2019, Neuilly-sur-Seine : The Future of Gas in the EU
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Valdai Middle East Conference, 19 February 2019, Moscow : The Future of OPEC
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Ifri-OCP Roundtable, 9 November 2018, Rabat : Sub-Saharan Africa’s electricity challenges and opportunities
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Embassy of the Republic of Poland in France, 22 October 2018, Paris : La transition énergétique : la voie de la mise en œuvre de l’accord de Paris
- Press release by Moroccan press agency MAP Express, 8 November 2018: Débats d’experts à Rabat sur les opportunités durables pour l’Afrique en matière d’énergies renouvelables
- Presentation by Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies, Center for Energy, 26 September 2018, New Delhi: The EU Energy Transition: Progress, Perspectives and Global Implications
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, 11 June 2018, Oslo: Sub-Saharan Africa’s electricity challenges and opportunities
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Energy Club - Rueil, 20 April 2018, Paris: The prospects for nuclear power in Saudi Arabia
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Eni, 18 April 2018, Brussels: The impacts of Western restrictive measures on Russia's oil and gas sectors
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Energetika XXI, 8-10 November 2017, St Petersburg: Ukraine's future role for gas transit
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Ukrainian Gas Forum, 11-12 October 2017, Kiev: Ukraine and the great game of pipelines: the ball is in Ukraine's court
- Presentation by Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe, Associate Research Fellow, Ifri Center for Energy, OIES 12th Annual Gas Day, 12 October 2017, Oxford: Can Gas displace Coal in Europe and Asia, and if so what?
- Presentation by Michel Cruciani, Associate Research Fellow, Ifri Center for Energy, 12 September 2017, Ifri Paris: Managining the energy transition in an age of innovation