Publié le 01/09/2022
Emmanuel Macron, President of France, Brussels, March 26, 2022


France  has  historically  paid  significant  attention  to  strategic  technologies  and  industries,  whether they were strictly defence- and nuclear deterrence related, or considered as vectors of national independence and security, more broadly.

This has translated into policies aimed at  supporting  the  national  industrial  and  technological  base,  funding  R&D,  and  protecting  strategic   companies   from   foreign   takeovers.   In   recent   years,   the   notion   of   “critical   technologies”  was  adopted,  and  the  breadth  of  sectors  covered  by  national  strategies  and  investment plans has expanded to include emerging and green technologies. That being said, in  many  areas  of  digital  technologies,  such  as  cloud  computing,  the  French  government  continues to rely largely on foreign (in particular, non-European) providers. Finally, the French policy has been increasingly intertwined with the EU level, as France has been a key promoter of  initiatives  to  enhance  the  EU’s  role  and  clout  in  critical  and  emerging  technologies,  in  defence as well as in the civilian domain.

>  This article is available on the website of IRIS [1].