Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, marked a turning point in German defense policy. After thirty years of military downsizing, the Bundeswehr found itself at an extremely low capability level just as a high-intensity war involving a great power was breaking out on Europe’s...
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Ethics and Responsibility in Space Exploration: The Rise of Soft Law to Regulate New Practices Notes de l'Ifri, September 2023
International agreements constitute an integral part of the normative framework crafted to ensure the effective governance of space-based operations. These agreements serve as foundational elements of "hard law," constituting binding legal norms that govern space activities. In conjunction...
What Does the Russian Army Think About its War in Ukraine? Criticisms, Recommendations, Adaptations Russie.Eurasie.Reports, No. 44, Ifri, September 2023
The Russian army is very critical of its war in Ukraine. Not just of the first phase of the failed special military operation (SVO), which was inspired by the theorization of bypassing, but also of the strategic deterrence phase that preceded it.
Europe: Turning to the Union to Respond to Citizens Politique étrangère, Vol. 88, No. 3, Autumn 2023
To deal with the internal and external challenges of a new era, the European Union must reform its institutions: review Member States' right of veto, strengthen the Commission, and take action on foreign policy and security matters, energy, the single market and the economy, social policy,...
Europe's Space Sector: Caught in a Strategic Stranglehold Politique étrangère, Vol. 88, No. 3, Autumn 2023
Europe's space sector is currently faced with great difficulties, marked by the temporary loss of autonomous access to space, strong competition from the USA, and the transformation of the satellite market. The European Union is also lagging behind in the digital field, and space data is...
The European Union is holding firm in the face of the war in Ukraine—perhaps better than expected. But what long-term effects will the war have on European institutions and policies? The institutions will need to be changed to cope with the forthcoming expansions. The EU has certainly made...
Fiscal Policy in France and Germany: Insurmountable Differences? Visions franco-allemandes, No. 34, Ifri, September 2023
The state of public finances in France and Germany is often compared. Germany is considered a model of rigor, through its ability to contain its deficits and generate surpluses, particularly between 2012 and 2019, thanks to the introduction into its constitution of a debt brake mechanism. ...
How to Curb Investments in Chinese Technology: Initiatives and debates in the United States Briefings de l'Ifri, August 31, 2023
In a continuation of U.S. efforts to slow China's development and acquisition of strategic technologies, Washington has imposed new restrictions on American investment in Chinese technology sectors such as AI, quantum and semiconductors.
The Wind Rose’s Directions: Russia’s Strategic Deterrence during the First Year of the War in Ukraine Proliferation Papers, No. 65, August 2023
Balance of Power in the Taiwan Strait in the Case of a Natural Disaster: Considering an Overlooked Scenario Lettre du Centre Asie, n° 106, August 4, 2023
Scenario planning in the Taiwan Strait that solely assumes a situation without natural disasters or emergencies, where the military and government function as usual, falls short in preparing for more complex contingencies.