Japan’s policies in post-Soviet Central Asia, similarly to its actions in other Asian subregions, have often been interpreted recently as reactions to China’s advances – in particular, the Belt and Road Initiative. This first impression can be misleading.
Biogas and Biomethane in Europe: Lessons from Denmark, Germany and Italy Etudes de l'Ifri, April 2019
At a time when the European Union (EU) is discussing its long-term climate strategy and drafting new legislation to foster the decarbonization of its gas sector, a close look at the experience of Denmark, Germany and Italy with renewable gas production can provide valuable lessons.
Seven Years of The 16+1: An Assessment of China’s ‘Multilateral Bilateralism’ in Central Europe Asie.Visions, No. 107, avril 2019
Since mid-2012, in the wake of the global financial crisis, China has sought to reinvigorate relations with Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), notably through the creation of the 16+1 formula.
France and China's Belt and Road Initiative Commentary in ISPI Dossier: EU-China Relations: Challenges and Opportunities
Under President Macron, France has staked out a positive but principled position towards China's BRI.
Russia’s Militia Groups and their Use at Home and Abroad Russie.Nei.Visions, No. 113, Ifri, April 2019
What makes the militia milieu so unique and important for understanding today’s Russia is that it finds itself at the intersection of state institutions, patronage mechanisms, criminal structures, and grassroots illiberal activism.
This text was published in Politique étrangère in 1979, the year in which the French Institute of International Relations (Ifri) was created.
During the 19th century, Westerners provided ideological justifications for their colonization, namely spreading the Enlightenment across the globe.
The last four decades have witnessed the profound transformation of the very foundations of the international system: the globalization of trade, technical revolutions, the upheaval of the hierarchy of powers, the emergence of China, the explosion of the Middle-East, the mutation of conflicts...
Between Concentration and Dispersion: A Promising Future for Power Relations Politique étrangère, Vol. 84, No. 1, Spring 2019
The notion of power has long been a topic of study in international relations. In the coming decade, the evolution of power will be characterized by the dynamics of concentration and dispersion.
Urbanization is a relentless trend, and as cities grow and expand, armed conflict and violence are urbanizing as well.