La presse française et la première guerre du Golfe ('The French Press during the 1991 Gulf War'), Marc Hecker, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2003, 164 p.
When the Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait in August 1990 most of the French journalists stated that war was unavoidable. The Persian Gulf War actually started in January 1991 and, during this six months period, the press kept on preparing the population to the prospect of a coming conflict. Only a few newspapers, such as Le Canard Enchaîné or L'Humanité, dared to break the consensus.
In February 1991, after a tragic blunder, the prevailing view changed. The expression 'clean war', which had constantly been used during the previous weeks, was described as a myth. However, instead of fully recognizing their mistakes, most of the journalists laid the blame on the Army's press officers.