For the second consecutive year, the coal sector registered good results in 2018. Global coal demand continues to increase (+0.7% in 2018), reversing the trend observed in 2015-16. Coal accounted for 26% of global primary energy consumption, maintaining its position as the second-largest...
La fourmilière du général : le commandement opérationnel face aux enjeux de haute intensité Focus stratégique, n° 89, June 2019
Operational command structures have always been able to adapt to the strategic context. However, they now face a new challenge: high intensity threats.
It is a classic exercise to imagine what today’s world would be like if all satellites were shut down. The exact consequences of such a scenario, which is not unlikely given the inherent vulnerability of space systems to natural, accidental and deliberate interferences, are however difficult...
The architecture of democracy is complex, coupling a legal framework to a social foundation that allows it to take root.
The Paradoxical Progression of Democracy in Mauritania Politique étrangère, Vol. 84, No. 2, Summer 2019
Mauritania's political system displays certain democratic qualities that go some way to meeting international standards.
Will There Be an Authoritarian Resurgence in Africa? Politique étrangère, Vol. 84, No. 2, Summer 2019
Elections are held on a regular basis in various African countries, but democracy is far from flourishing.
Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilization to the Rescue of Coal? Global Perspectives and Focus on China and the United States Etudes de l'Ifri, June 2019
In most of the pathways that limit global warming to 1.5°C, capture of CO2 from fossil-fuel or biomass-based installations and its long-term geological storage (carbon capture and storage - CCS and bio-energy with carbon capture and storage - BECCS) plays a crucial role.
"Post-Conflict" Democratization in Central Africa: An Anatomy of Failure Politique étrangère, Vol. 84, No. 2, Summer 2019
To create a political shift that draws a line under conflict once and for all, it is not always enough to draft a democratic constitution and call elections.