What are the next geopolitical challenges of the century? The global pandemic has altered the equilibrium between Asia and the West and sealed the rift between China and the United States, accentuating the world’s shift towards the East. On this polarized chessboard, two fault lines converge:...
Energy & Climate
Ifri has celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2019 and is ranked in the top-3 of the world's most influential think-tanks (Upenn Index). Its Center for Energy & Climate combines a unique expertise on energy & climate policies and European and global energy markets, technologies and value chains. In particular, the Center analyses the interplay between geopolitics, geo-economics and energy markets & policies. And how the traditional tensions around fossil fuels evolve and are complemented by new rivalries for other resources, norms, technologies, investments, value chains.
Through its reports, closed-door seminars and open events in Paris and Brussels, the Center for Energy & Climate is conducting forefront and independent research to provide strategic information and analyses to policy-makers, industry stakeholders, academia, media and the wider public. The Center is a leading voice in France and the European Union.
- The strategic dimension of the European Union energy transition and drive towards carbon neutrality by 2050; cooperation and coordination among relevant actors; geo-economic rivalries around the deployment of low carbon energy systems; risks and opportunities for public and private stakeholders.
- Shifting power relations and alliances in the global climate governance and implementation of the Paris Agreement; climate change and instability.
- Electricity sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa: scaling up sustainable electricity access, attracting investments and restructuring, and developing low carbon electricity systems.
- The evolving interdependence between and among fossil fuels producers and consumers; the future stability and geopolitical orientation of fossil fuel exporters.
Organisation of the Centre
The governance and financial structure of the Center ensures that our work is fully independent and of the highest quality and relevance. The Center is financed by Ifri partner institutions, organizations and companies as presented in Ifri's activity report.
The Steering Committee gathers representatives from the Center’s partners, the Director of Ifri, and the Director of the Center for Energy & Climate. Meetings of the Steering Committee provide our partners the opportunity to express their views on the general orientation of the Center.
United States Climate Politics Under Biden: Is the Clean Energy Revolution Under Way? Édito Énergie, January 13, 2021
For most of United States (US) history, environmental issues enjoyed bipartisan support. While Democratic President Johnson signed the Clean Air Act in 1963, Republican President Nixon established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970. America’s “environmental decade”...
Energy and electricity policy, planning and regulation in South Africa has been slow and bureaucratic, lacking visionary leadership, and marred by uncertainty. Policy positions and actions taken have tended to be reactive, and driven more by crisis management than by forward-looking leadership...
A Review of Recent Trends in China’s Gas Sector and a Glimpse into the 14th Five-Year Plan Notes de l'Ifri, November 2020
China’s economy has rebounded since April 2020 and China is one of the few countries in the world that is expected to avoid a recession in 2020. With low imported gas prices, progress with the gas market liberalization and success in pushing up shale gas production, the window of a golden age...
The Potential of Digital Technologies for Centralized Electricity Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa Notes de l’Ifri, October 2020
Affordable and reliable electricity access is a prerequisite for the economic development of sub-Saharan Africa.
This study assesses the prospects of a hydrogen economy with Chinese characteristics. Against the backdrop of an escalating US-China trade war and the ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, key Chinese stakeholders become increasingly interested in moving the hydrogen economy agenda...
European buildings are old and too often inefficient, past policies have not delivered and the amount of investment into energy efficiency must be scaled up dramatically to meet the 2030 targets and ultimately, the carbon neutrality objective.
Turkey’s New Gas Discovery in the Black Sea and Its Potential Implications Editoriaux de l'Ifri, October 1, 2020
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced Turkey’s biggest gas discovery ever on August 21, 2020. Initial findings show that the estimated reserve capacity is 320 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas.
Ambitious New Climate Goals Shouldn't Let China off the Hook Lettre du Centre Asie, No. 86, September 30, 2020
Xi Jinping’s announcement of carbon neutrality is impeccably timed, but the hard part lies ahead.
Japan has been steadfastly promoting the development of its hydrogen economy at all levels: political, diplomatic, economic and industrial. It is yet to be seen if this excitement can be turned into a credible, cost-effective and large scale deployment.
Italy’s Green Recovery Strategy and the European Climate Agenda Ifri Green Deal Virtual Lunch Series
Italy is firmly committed to decarbonizing its economy, with policy measures including phasing out coal by 2025, encouraging home renovations with generous tax breaks and expanding the use of renewables in the electricity, heating, and transport sectors.
South Africa benefits from a successful renewable energy program and a certain status as the only nuclear power plant operator on the African continent. These assets have been increasingly overshadowed by structural and mounting challenges affecting the energy sector and entire economy: load...
US Energy & Climate Policies under the Biden Administration: Assessing the Internal and External Dimensions Ifri Closed Seminar
President Trump has broken but not terminated the global climate governance. President-elect Biden aims to reintegrate the Paris Agreement and engage the US into a major energy transformation.
LNG and Gas-to-Power in Africa: Opportunities and Challenges Ifri’s webinar series on Sub-Saharan power sectors
With the recent discoveries of large gas resources in Sub-Saharan Africa, cheap renewable energy sources, loose LNG markets with competitive prices, there is a unique momentum to accelerate the electrification of the continent with gas/LNG to power, solar and hydro as backbones.
For Europe to reach climate neutrality by 2050, the European Commission (EC) expects offshore wind capacity to go from 23 GW today to up to 450 GW, with half of this capacity to be installed in the North Sea, the pioneer region with still large untapped wind resources.
China is in the spotlight: clearances for new coal fired power plants have multiplied and the country aims to foster electrification of end-uses.
Faced with an unprecedented environmental, sanitary and economic crisis, the European Union is determined to turn the challenges into an opportunity: adopting the 750 billion EUR European recovery plan and making the Green Deal centre stage.
The European Council’s political agreement on the recovery fund and 2021-2027 budget paves the way to a large-scale response to the economic recession with a strong emphasis on climate protection.
The digital transformation of sub-Saharan electricity networks: Smart Grids for sustainable cities Closed Seminar
Affordable and reliable electricity access is a prerequisite for the development of sustainable cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving the financial and operational viability of the region’s power sectors is a prerequisite for the multiplication of solar projects.
The green recovery, Germany's energy transition and the coordination of French and German policies Closed Seminar
Ahead of Germany's EU Council presidency and amidst debates over the EU recovery plan and 2021-2027 budget, what happens in Berlin critically matters.
The two countries have been solid partners throughout the Trump era and France is now watching China’s investments closely, both at home and abroad.
With the recent adoption of its defence budget for 2021, the US has further tightened the screw on Nord Stream 2, threatening sanctions on EU companies involved in the Russian-backed pipeline and putting the future of the project further into uncertainty.
Asia’s biggest economy wants to promote fuel cells for trucks. Renewable energy investments should make hydrogen less costly. Tesla Inc.Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk has spent years mocking the idea of using hydrogen fuel cells rather than electric batteries to power next-generation green...
Governments across the globe are increasingly focusing on the benefits of sustainable energy and Qatar is no different. As part of its national vision, the country is working to create harmony between environmental protection and economic growth.
Following the 18 May Franco-German initiative and ahead of next week's critical presentation (27 May) by the European Commission of the European recovery plan aligned with the carbon neutrality objective, Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri's Center for Energy &...
“Green” or “Brown” Recovery Strategies? A preliminary assessment of policy trends in a selection of countries worldwide
Economic recovery measures taken by several governments in the world so far are not aligned with the Paris Agreement. Yet some governments took important steps in the right direction but they are often insufficient. Two cases stand out : South Korea and the EU. But delivering on the ambitions...
Covid-19 & OPEC+ collapse: preliminary assessment of implications for energy markets, policies and geopolitical balances
The global economy is shaken by the consequences of the Covid-19 outbreak in major global economies which increasingly impacts demand, supply chains and trade.
The price of CO2 credits on Europe’s emissions trading scheme needs to rise to around €50 per tonne in order to drive the long-term development of Europe’s biomethane industry, says Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, a French researcher.
The prospects for biogas in Europe look bright, with conservative estimates pointing to a tenfold increase in production by 2030. However, the industry will need to stay rooted in the local economy and come clean on environmental credentials if it wants to avoid a green backlash, analysts say....
Energy has been at the heart of Ukraine's troubles with Russia over the past two decades, typically as a means for Moscow to pressure its former province. The pressure points have changed over the years – moving from a focus on direct supplies to transit through Ukraine – but the battle...
Italy’s Energy and Climate Policies in the Post COVID-19 Recovery, Briefing Memo by Massimo Lombardini, February 2021
2020 Activity Report of the Center for Energy & Climate: publications, conferences and outreach (in French).
- Assessment of Renewable Investments in Europe by Leading Companies & Perspectives to 2025 by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Carole Mathieu and Thibault Menu, Ifri Center for Energy & Climate, 9 December 2020
- Analysis of the key issues that will make or break the Green Deal's energy and industrial aspects, by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of the Center for Energy & Climate, Ifri, 19 may 2020: The Twelve Labours of the European Green Deal
- Overview and assessment of policy measures taken in several G7, EU, G20 and regional economies and their climate impacts, two months after the start of the global lockdowns, by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Hugo Le Picard and Eloïse Couffon, 5 May 2020: “Green” or “Brown” Recovery Strategies? A preliminary assessment of policy trends in a selection of countries worldwide
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, 2nd German-Danish Roundtable on Energy Transition, Copenhaguen, 24 September 2019: The perspectives for biomethane in the EU
- Dialogue with Naftogaz CEO Kobolyev on gas negociations and Naftogaz restructuring, Brussels, 20 September 2019.
Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director, Ifri Center for Energy and Andriy Kobolyev, CEO, Naftogaz
- Hearing of Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies of the Ifri Center for Energy, National Assembly, 25 July 2019, Paris : Commission of inquiery Impacts of the Energy Transition (video)
- Fruitful conversation with Egypt's Minister of Petroleum and Natural Resources Tarek El Molla about Egypt's impressive energy sector reforms and positioning as a regional gas hub, Ifri, 12 June, Paris.
Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Tarek El Molla, Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources of Egypt, Thomas Gomart, Director of Ifri
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy and Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies of the Ifri Center for Energy, Plateforme française de l'automobile, 11 June 2019, Paris: "The European industry of batteries"
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Russian Gas Society, 16 May 2019, Berlin: The role of gas in the European energy transition: risks and opportunities
- Presentation by Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies of the Ifri Center for Energy, Bruegel Institute,15 May 2019, Brussels : The French Energy & Climate Strategy and the Future Role of Nuclear Electricity
- G7 Environment Ministerial, 5-6 May 2019, Metz. Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy: Scaling up environment protection, energy transition & climate action: vision and actions for a G7 leadership
- Presentation by Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe, Associate Research Fellow, Ifri Center for Energy, Energetika workshop on the future of gas, 24 April 2019, Berlin: Decarbonization of the French energy mix and the role of gas
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Trilateral forum, Council of Europe, 25 March 2019, Strasburg: Global and regional energy security revisited: old trends, new paradigms
Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Workshop for Algerian delegation on future gas demand in the EU, European Commission, DG ENER, 19 March 2019, Brussels : EU gas demand perspectives by 2030
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Convention de l'Association française du gaz, 12 March 2019, Neuilly-sur-Seine : The Future of Gas in the EU
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Valdai Middle East Conference, 19 February 2019, Moscow : The Future of OPEC
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Ifri-OCP Roundtable, 9 November 2018, Rabat : Sub-Saharan Africa’s electricity challenges and opportunities
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Embassy of the Republic of Poland in France, 22 October 2018, Paris : La transition énergétique : la voie de la mise en œuvre de l’accord de Paris
- Press release by Moroccan press agency MAP Express, 8 November 2018: Débats d’experts à Rabat sur les opportunités durables pour l’Afrique en matière d’énergies renouvelables
- Presentation by Carole Mathieu, Head of EU Energy & Climate Policies, Center for Energy, 26 September 2018, New Delhi: The EU Energy Transition: Progress, Perspectives and Global Implications
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, 11 June 2018, Oslo: Sub-Saharan Africa’s electricity challenges and opportunities
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Energy Club - Rueil, 20 April 2018, Paris: The prospects for nuclear power in Saudi Arabia
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Eni, 18 April 2018, Brussels: The impacts of Western restrictive measures on Russia's oil and gas sectors
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Energetika XXI, 8-10 November 2017, St Petersburg: Ukraine's future role for gas transit
- Presentation by Marc-Antoine Eyl-Mazzega, Director of Ifri Center for Energy, Ukrainian Gas Forum, 11-12 October 2017, Kiev: Ukraine and the great game of pipelines: the ball is in Ukraine's court
- Presentation by Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe, Associate Research Fellow, Ifri Center for Energy, OIES 12th Annual Gas Day, 12 October 2017, Oxford: Can Gas displace Coal in Europe and Asia, and if so what?
- Presentation by Michel Cruciani, Associate Research Fellow, Ifri Center for Energy, 12 September 2017, Ifri Paris: Managining the energy transition in an age of innovation